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Ruby数组

时间:2014-08-21 20:41 来源:未知 作者:www.51ou.com 阅读:

Ruby数组是有序的,任何对象的​​整数索引的集合。每个数组中的元素相关联,并提到的一个索引。

数组下标从0开始,如C或Java。负数索引假设数组末尾---也就是说,-1表示最后一个元素的数组索引,-2是数组中最后一个元素的下一个元素等等。

Ruby的数组可以容纳对象,如字符串,整数,长整数,哈希,符号,甚至其他Array对象。Ruby数组没有在其他语言中数组一样严格。Ruby数组自动增长同时增加元素。

创建数组:

有许多方法来创建或初始化一个数组。一种方式是 new 类方法:

names = Array.new  

可以设置一个数组的大小,在数组创建的时候:

names = Array.new(20)  

数组 names 现在有20个元素的大小或长度。您可以返回一个数组的大小尺寸或长度的方法:

#!/usr/bin/ruby

names = Array.new(20)
puts names.size  # This returns 20
puts names.length # This also returns 20  

这将产生以下结果:

20
20  

可以指定一个值数组中的每个元素如下:

#!/usr/bin/ruby

names = Array.new(4, "mac")

puts "#{names}"  

这将产生以下结果:

macmacmacmac  

还可以使用用new块,块会计算填充每个元素:

#!/usr/bin/ruby

nums = Array.new(10) { |e| e = e * 2 }

puts "#{nums}"  

这将产生以下结果:

024681012141618  

还有另一种方法,数组,[]。它的工作原理是这样的:

nums = Array.[](1, 2, 3, 4,5)  

另一种形式的数组创建如下:

nums = Array[1, 2, 3, 4,5]  

内核模块Ruby的核心,有一个数组的方法,只接受一个参数。这里的方法范围内创建一个数组的数字作为参数:

#!/usr/bin/ruby

digits = Array(0..9)

puts "#{digits}"  

这将产生以下结果:

0123456789  

数组内置的方法:

我们需要有Array对象调用数组方法的一个实例。正如我们所看到的,下面是Array对象的方式来创建一个实例:

Array.[](...) [or] Array[...] [or] [...]  

这将返回一个新数组填充给定的对象。现在使用创建的对象,我们可以调用任何可用实例方法。例如:

#!/usr/bin/ruby

digits = Array(0..9)

num = digits.at(6)

puts "#{num}"  

这将产生以下结果:

6  

以下是公共数组方法(假设数组是一个数组对象):

SN 方法及描述
1 array & other_array
Returns a new array containing elements common to the two arrays, with no duplicates.
2 array * int [or] array * str
Returns a new array built by concatenating the int copies of self. With a String argument, equivalent to self.join(str).
3 array + other_array
Returns a new array built by concatenating the two arrays together to produce a third array.
4 array - other_array
Returns a new array that is a copy of the original array, removing any items that also appear in other_array.
5 str <=> other_str
Compares str with other_str, returning -1 (less than), 0 (equal), or 1 (greater than). The comparison is casesensitive.
6 array | other_array
Returns a new array by joining array with other_array, removing duplicates.
7 array << obj
Pushes the given object onto the end of array. This expression returns the array itself, so several appends may be chained together.
8 array <=> other_array
Returns an integer (-1, 0, or +1) if this array is less than, equal to, or greater than other_array.
9 array == other_array
Two arrays are equal if they contain the same number of elements and if each element is equal to (according to Object.==) the corresponding element in the other array.
10 array[index] [or] array[start, length] [or]
array[range] [or] array.slice(index) [or]
array.slice(start, length) [or] array.slice(range)
Returns the element at index, or returns a subarray starting at start and continuing forlength elements, or returns a subarray specified by range. Negative indices count backward from the end of the array (-1 is the last element). Returns nil if the index (or starting index) is out of range.
11 array[index] = obj [or]
array[start, length] = obj or an_array or nil [or]
array[range] = obj or an_array or nil
Sets the element at index, or replaces a subarray starting at start and continuing forlength elements, or replaces a subarray specified by range. If indices are greater than the current capacity of the array, the array grows automatically. Negative indices will count backward from the end of the array. Inserts elements if length is zero. If nil is used in the second and third form, deletes elements from self.
12 array.abbrev(pattern = nil)
Calculates the set of unambiguous abbreviations for the strings in self. If passed a pattern or a string, only the strings matching the pattern or starting with the string are considered.
13 array.assoc(obj)
Searches through an array whose elements are also arrays comparing obj with the first element of each contained array using obj.==. Returns the first contained array that matches , or nil if no match is found.
14 array.at(index)
Returns the element at index. A negative index counts from the end of self. Returns nil if the index is out of range.
15 array.clear
Removes all elements from array.
16 array.collect { |item| block } [or]
array.map { |item| block }
Invokes block once for each element of self. Creates a new array containing the values returned by the block.
17 array.collect! { |item| block } [or]
array.map! { |item| block }
Invokes block once for each element of self, replacing the element with the value returned by block.
18 array.compact
Returns a copy of self with all nil elements removed.
19 array.compact!
Removes nil elements from array. Returns nil if no changes were made.
20 array.concat(other_array)
Appends the elements in other_array to self.
21 array.delete(obj) [or] 
array.delete(obj) { block }
Deletes items from self that are equal to obj. If the item is not found, returns nil. If the optional code block is given, returns the result of block if the item is not found.
22 array.delete_at(index)
Deletes the element at the specified index, returning that element, or nil if the index is out of range.
23 array.delete_if { |item| block }
Deletes every element of self for which block evaluates to true.
24 array.each { |item| block }
Calls block once for each element in self, passing that element as a parameter.
25 array.each_index { |index| block }
Same as Array#each, but passes the index of the element instead of the element itself.
26 array.empty?
Returns true if the self array contains no elements.
27 array.eql?(other)
Returns true if array and other are the same object, or are both arrays with the same content.
28 array.fetch(index) [or] 
array.fetch(index, default) [or] 
array.fetch(index) { |index| block }
Tries to return the element at position index. If index lies outside the array, the first form throws an IndexError exception, the second form returns default, and the third form returns the value of invoking block, passing in index. Negative values of indexcount from the end of the array.
29 array.fill(obj) [or]
array.fill(obj, start [, length]) [or]
array.fill(obj, range) [or]
array.fill { |index| block } [or]
array.fill(start [, length] ) { |index| block } [or]
array.fill(range) { |index| block }
The first three forms set the selected elements of self to obj. A start of nil is equivalent to zero. A length of nil is equivalent to self.length. The last three forms fill the array with the value of the block. The block is passed the absolute index of each element to be filled.
30 array.first [or] 
array.first(n)
Returns the first element, or the first n elements, of the array. If the array is empty, the first form returns nil, and the second form returns an empty array.
31 array.flatten
Returns a new array that is a one-dimensional flattening of this array (recursively).
32 array.flatten!
Flattens array in place. Returns nil if no modifications were made. (array contains no subarrays.)
33 array.frozen?
Returns true if array is frozen (or temporarily frozen while being sorted).
34 array.hash
Compute a hash-code for array. Two arrays with the same content will have the same hash code
35 array.include?(obj)
Returns true if obj is present in self, false otherwise.
36 array.index(obj)
Returns the index of the first object in self that is == to obj. Returns nil if no match is found.
37 array.indexes(i1, i2, ... iN) [or]
array.indices(i1, i2, ... iN)
This methods is deprecated in latest version of Ruby so please use Array#values_at.
38 array.indices(i1, i2, ... iN) [or]
array.indexes(i1, i2, ... iN)
This methods is deprecated in latest version of Ruby so please use Array#values_at.
39 array.insert(index, obj...)
Inserts the given values before the element with the given index (which may be negative).
40 array.inspect
Creates a printable version of array.
41 array.join(sep=$,)
Returns a string created by converting each element of the array to a string, separated by sep.
42 array.last [or] array.last(n)
Returns the last element(s) of self. If array is empty, the first form returns nil.
43 array.length
Returns the number of elements in self. May be zero.
44 array.map { |item| block } [or]
array.collect { |item| block }
Invokes block once for each element of self. Creates a new array containing the values returned by the block.
45 array.map! { |item| block } [or]
array.collect! { |item| block }
Invokes block once for each element of array, replacing the element with the value returned by block.
46 array.nitems
Returns the number of non-nil elements in self. May be zero.
47 array.pack(aTemplateString)
Packs the contents of array into a binary sequence according to the directives in aTemplateString. Directives ' ;%迗Z抙8HE' ;%迗Z抙d by a count, which gives the width of the resulting field. The remaining directives also may take a count, indicating the number of array elements to convert. If the count is an asterisk (*), all remaining array elements will be converted. Any of the directives sSiIlL may be followed by an underscore (_) to use the underlying platform's native size for the specified type; otherwise, they use a platformindependent size. Spaces are ignored in the template string. ( See templating Table below )
48 array.pop
Removes the last element from array and returns it, or nil if array is empty.
49 array.push(obj, ...)
Pushes (appends) the given obj onto the end of this array. This expression returns the array itself, so several appends may be chained together.
50 array.rassoc(key)
Searches through the array whose elements are also arrays. Compares key with the second element of each contained array using ==. Returns the first contained array that matches.
51 array.reject { |item| block }
Returns a new array containing the items array for which the block is not true.
52 array.reject! { |item| block }
Deletes elements from array for which the block evaluates to true, but returns nil if no changes were made. Equivalent to Array#delete_if.
53 array.replace(other_array)
Replaces the contents of array with the contents of other_array, truncating or expanding if necessary.
54 array.reverse
Returns a new array containing array's elements in reverse order.
55 array.reverse!
Reverses array in place.
56 array.reverse_each {|item| block }
Same as Array#each, but traverses array in reverse order.
57 array.rindex(obj)
Returns the index of the last object in array == to obj. Returns nil if no match is found.
58 array.select {|item| block }
Invokes the block passing in successive elements from array, returning an array containing those elements for which the block returns a true value.
59 array.shift
Returns the first element of self and removes it (shifting all other elements down by one). Returns nil if the array is empty.
60 array.size
Returns the length of array (number of elements). Alias for length.
61 array.slice(index) [or] array.slice(start, length) [or]
array.slice(range) [or] array[index] [or]
array[start, length] [or] array[range]
Returns the element at index, or returns a subarray starting at start and continuing forlength elements, or returns a subarray specified by range. Negative indices count backward from the end of the array (-1 is the last element). Returns nil if the index (or starting index) are out of range.
62 array.slice!(index) [or] array.slice!(start, length) [or]
array.slice!(range)
Deletes the element(s) given by an index (optionally with a length) or by a range. Returns the deleted object, subarray, or nil if index is out of range.
63 array.sort [or] array.sort { | a,b | block }
Returns a new array created by sorting self.
64 array.sort! [or] array.sort! { | a,b | block }
Sorts self.
65 array.to_a
Returns self. If called on a subclass of Array, converts the receiver to an Array object.
66 array.to_ary
Returns self.
67 array.to_s
Returns self.join.
68 array.transpose
Assumes that self is an array of arrays and transposes the rows and columns.
69 array.uniq
Returns a new array by removing duplicate values in array.
70 array.uniq!
Removes duplicate elements from self. Returns nil if no changes are made (that is, no duplicates are found).
71 array.unshift(obj, ...)
Prepends objects to the front of array, other elements up one.
72 array.values_at(selector,...)
Returns an array containing the elements in self corresponding to the given selector(one or more). The selectors may be either integer indices or ranges.
73 array.zip(arg, ...) [or] 
array.zip(arg, ...){ | arr | block }
Converts any arguments to arrays, then merges elements of array with corresponding elements from each argument.

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